- Why do some nocturnal MCSs live longer than others?
- What causes spatial variability in nocturnal environmental instability?
- Can we document the internal dynamic and microphysical processes in long-lived nocturnal MCSs?
In the second part of the project, we attempt to establish a link between moisture heterogeneity induced by LLJ and storm microphysical sensitivities. What motivated this subsequent work is that most storm microphysical sensitivity experiments assume uniform environment without temporal change. Interestingly, LLJ moisture heterogeneity seems to change the MCS sensitivities to rain fallout in unexpected ways. Preliminary findings suggest that how microphysical assumption feedbacks upon storm characteristics is governed by changes in storm thermodynamics through hydrometeor phase changes. It follows that the heating/cooling from phase change varies according to environmental moisture profiles, despite parameterization adjustments being identical. We intend to submit a journal article documenting these findings to Mon. Wea. Rev. later this year (2021).